Sugar Cane in Puerto Rico
1501, the first sugar cane field was put in production and
in 1506 the first molasses was extracted using an indian "cunyaya".
In 1515 the first "trapiche" was constructed and the first
masters of sugar arrived from the Canaries Islands. It is not
documented when the first plants of sugar cane arrived in
Puerto Rico, but it is believed that it was when Juan Ponce
de Leon began colonizing the island. It was first planted in
the gardens to be chewed.
Following the record sugar cane harvest of 1952, the
industry experienced an accelerated deterioration.
Additionally, the production of sugar took a lower priority
as the government undertook to industrialize the island.
Between 1951 and 1968, 17 mills ceased operations. At the
end of the 1960s, the government tried to rescue the
industry through a recovery program. The Land Authority
acquired a significant number of mills and in 1973 created
the Sugar Corporation.
Despite the fact that the government became the principal
sugar producer in Puerto Rico, the mills, both privately and
publicly funded, were shut down, one by one. In 2000,
operations ceased at the last mills still functioning: Roig
in Yabucoa and Coloso, which had operated for nearly 100
years in the municipality of Aguada.
Some of the mills also included refineries and packaging
operations whose refined white sugar, with its fine grain,
built the reputation of the Puerto Rican sugar producers as
true artisans. Aguirre Sugar Cane Mill, the last operational
sugar cane mill in Puerto Rico, Aguirre Central closed its
doors in 1993.
The Incredible Phenomenon.
Superman went to numerous ordeals in order to protect his
identity, that is, who he really was behind Clark Kent’s
glasses and fedora. So did the Lone Ranger, Spider Man and
many other heroes that we know of. Identities can be stolen
or eradicated. We’ve seen movies, read books, news and
documentaries on that subject. Therefore, we can conclude
that identity is, thus, a very important asset.
One’s personal identity can be manifested in many ways and
in many parts of the world. All you need is behavior.
Behavior will declare identity. You are who you are no
matter where you stand. Your behavior will tell your peers
where you are coming from. ►Read More
-- Portacoeli Church built 1609 in
San German,PR; the Oldest in America
The Importance of Jesus Christ
by Don Jíbaro
Is Jesus Christ really part of our lives
or is He just an Icon at Easter and Christmas?
YOU VISIT any town, ANY... in Puerto Rico, most likely
you'll see a church in the town's main plaza or around it.
Inside that church, Jesus will be the focus of the
congregation's faith. Not Muhammad, not Joseph Smith
(Mormons), not Charles Taze Russell (JWs), not Buddha, not
Adventists, not Ying Yan... etc., ad libitum. Only ONE:
Jesus. Mary was Jesus' mom, but that's another story... and
I mean another story.
In a nutshell, Christianity is comes from the acceptance of
the "Gospel" of Jesus, (Evangelion) The word is a calque
(word-for-word translation) of the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον,)
"Good News" ...by Faith through Grace. Jesus died for you on
the cross and arose from the dead and He's coming back...
That's it; whether you believe it or not!! ►Read
I hated the Disco years because they wouldn't
let me take a decent guitar solo. Aargh!
O' DAT LOVE? DEPT.
a tendency to make mistakes that make us HURT inside; pain that we cause
ourselves by not knowing how to LOVE one another. YES,
not knowing. You might say, "Nonsense", but what I might
not know in practice, I do know in theory. Love is the
gracious (unmerited to others) self-giving of ourselves
as unselfish human care. NO debate needed. Love is not
sex, friendship, nor displays of affection... love is
giving without expecting anything in return... and
that's not easy, not for you, me or anybody. That's what
makes it so volatile and fragile.
We expect, we don't
get, we get mad and hold grudges because of it. We cry,
go through hell because uncertainty haunts us like a fly
over a piece of dead meat. Have we failed to be patient and kind?
Have we become
jealous, conceited and proud to the point of being
ill-mannered, selfish, irritable, and often-times curse
at each other?
Love that you have to chase or wait for is generally not
worth the chase nor the wait. NOT unless your name is
JEHOVAH and folks have to wait for you. When it comes to
LOVE, not doing the right thing is as bad as NOT doing
anything at all. To a lover who knows what to do and NOT to
do it, to him is a deplorable sin. Those who get caught in a
narcissistic routine expect self-validation and NOT
So, we can only live with the curses of conventional love by
only caring for others without chasing love or waiting for
the world to love us back! It's a two edged sword. OUCH!!!
Do We Need To Prove
ourselves and our worth can be insidious as we strive to be
accepted. This is a basic human need. For instance, you
might take on extra projects with the intention of looking
good and impressing others. You might create drama or tell
stories about how hard your life is to gain attention. You
might participate in unhealthy relationships or not speak up
for yourself when you’ve been hurt. However, you no longer
need to prove yourself to anyone. This operating system
began when you were young. It is how you learned to survive
and get your needs met. It is not what you need now as an
adult and a leader.
As a leader, looking to gain acceptance from others may show
up as being unable to delegate or outsource. You may have
difficulty handling conflict or challenging situations out
of fear of NOT being accepted. You may question yourself and
experience a lot of self-doubt. This not only increases your
levels of stress and productivity, but also impacts your
ability to lead and influence others.
When you accept that you are complete and whole, that you
are not lacking in anyway, you stop looking outside yourself
for something or someone to complete you. Whereas, when you
operate from a need to prove your value, you seek attention
and validation from outside sources and will keep looking
for ways to prove yourself until the need is satisfied. The
problem is that, because you don’t believe in your own value
– because you have not yet accepted yourself – you continue
to look for it from elsewhere. When you look outside
yourself for validation of how you should be or act, you
actually give your power away to some external person or
thing! It is YOU who requires your approval and
Be self-accepting. Recognize your value as a human being and
how amazing you are. Become more self-appreciating and
celebrate the qualities that make you special and unique.
history of a country
...is generally written by the conquerors. The
"conquered" seldom writes a thing. Many
things contribute to the correct and
accurate depiction of historical data.
Sponsorship by the wealthy was one of the
favorite incentives. Such history tends to
carry a partial or one-sided view of the
It is, consequently, up to the passionate
historian to do his or her own research to
verify the facts. This leads to
documentation which will totally eradicate
any pre-conceived notion acquired during the
student's whippersnapper elementary history
education. Puerto Rico, more than perhaps
any other nation, may fall victim to this
phenomenon due to the simple fact that
Puerto Rico is the oldest colony in the
world today! Over 500 years, compadre! Yikes, sez me!
The Boricua Black Eye?
by Don Jíbaro Barbanegra
The Black Eye Syndrome is simple.... Say, you have an uncle who's in jail
for burglary, that's a "black eye" to the family. You have a sister who
wears red and works the street corners... that's a "black eye" to the
family. If any of the above is caught on T.V., Radio or Newspapers... that's
a BIG "black eye" to the family. If they're on the Internet, that's a HUGE
"black eye". Get the idea?"
READ THE BLACK EYE
We Hate Phonies?
by Don Jibaro
• Pho·ny/fōnē/ Adjective: Not genuine; fraudulent.Noun: A fraudulent person or thing.
• Synonyms: adjective. phoney - false - spurious - sham -
counterfeit - bogus -- noun.- fake - sham - forgery
Puerto Ricans who are born outside of Puerto Rico get a real
thrill when they finally get to visit the island for the
first time. It's like "seeing the bride that you've been
betrothed to all your life."
by Raquel M. Vázquez — February 2011
Don Jibaro's Note:
eldest daughter Raquel, a student of the University Of Maryland,
is a very independent person... She's a leader, not a follower;
a strong-willed gal that earns peer respect by who she is; not
by what she appears to be. She has always maintained a certain
degree of admiration for me because she likes our intellectual
exchange. What she wrote below, however, blew my mind to Alpha
Centauri, because how she expressed things I never knew existed.
I am deeply honored to receive this form of mesmerizing
accolade... it's like a Grand Birthday Gift. READ Ode
to see enlarged
Photo Journal Here◄
informed: Subscribe to
Don Jíbaro's NO SPAM Newsletter
“Live in such a way that no one blames the rest of us
nor finds fault with our work.” --(2 Corinthians 6:3)
Since 1993, you're visitor No.